Classifications & Specifications
Different Classificatioin Systems
Global DHD-1 (since 2001) is a world-wide specification for lubricants which was developed by ACEA, EMA and JAMA together.
DHD-1 describes engine oil for diesel engines which has a high emission standard and can be applied all over the world.
Global DHD-1 Guideline
To a large extent, the API and ACEA classifications are awarded in a so-called self-certificating system. It is left to every lubricant manufacturer to carry out his own tests and certificate them single-handed. Possible specific requirements for manufacturing cannot be taken into consideration, because the system is based on the requirements of all its members and acts as the lowest common denominator.
For this reason, alongside the mentioned specification system, there are also manufacturers which have created an especial clearance system:
e.g. BMW, Daimler AG, Porsche, VW including Audi, Seat, Skoda
Requirements of Manufacturers
The minimum standard has, up until now, been the ACEA A3/B3. However, this causes a limitation in the range of operating temperatures. Only products that meet the requirements of BMW -Spezialöl, were allowed to be used at all temperatures without limitations. There is a new list of the longlife oils for BMW 3 (E46), BMW 5 (E39 built after 1999), and BMW 7 (E38 built after 1999). Only the listed products can be used in the mentioned vehicles. Requirements to the listed longlife oils are based on ACEA A3/B3 and the approval test M44 directed by the BMW.
Spezialöl This is the previous standard for Longlife-standard. These are the engine oils for the vehicles built before 1998 (Base ACEA A2/A3/B3)
Longlife-98 Enginge oils for special gasoline engines that have been built since 1998 and have an extended oil change intervals (> 15 000km) This specification is based on ACEA A3/B3.
Longlife-01 Enginge oils for special gasoline engines that have been built since 2001. (Diesel engines according to ACEA B3). These oils are prescribed for the NG-engines, but they can also be used in the vehicles that require the BMW Longlife-98 specification. (It covers the previous specifications)
Longlife-01 FE Enginge oils for special gasoline engines equipped with Valvetronic system that have been built since 2001. (FE=fuel Economy). This standard differs from the LL-01 through the high temperature viscosity (decreased to 3,0 mPas). It doesn’t cover the previous specifications.
Longlife-04 Enginge oils for special diesel engines equipped with particulate filter that have been built since 2004. (That means that low-emission oils according to Euro 4 are included)
Daimler AG has been using a unitary specification system for cars with gasoline and diesel engines since the end of 1997; It was published in the point 229.1 of the manufacturers' instructions. The system is based on ACEA A2/B2 and ACEA A3/B3. However, Daimler AG is not geared on the valid test requirements alone, but also makes additional demands in respect to certain engine tests.
228.0/.1 Multigrade engine oils for diesel engines with turbochargers. These oils meet the requirements of ACEA E2.
228.2 Single grade oils for definite diesel engines. These engine oils meet the requirements of ACEA E7(Earlier E3, E5)
228.3 SHPD- multigrade engine oils for diesel engines with turbochargers and extended oil change intervals up to 45 000 km. These engine oils meet the requirements of ACEA E7 (Earlier E3, E5)
228.31 Multigrade engine oils with operating characteristics that correspond to MB 228.3 and have a low proportion of sulphide, phosphor and ash. (Low SPAsh oils or Low SAPS)
228.5 UHPD Low-friction engine oils for diesel engines with turbochargers and the most extended oil change intervals (trucks up to 45 000 km, heavy trucks – up to 160 000 km, depending on the indication of the board computer) These engine oils meet the requirements of ACEA E4.
228.51 UHPD engine oils with operating characteristics that correspond to MB 228.5 and a low proportion of sulphide, phosphor and ash. (Low SPAsh oils or Low SAPS). These engine oils meet the requirements of ACEA E6.
229.1 Multigrade engine oils for cars (gasoline and diesel engines). These engine oils meet the requirements of ACEA A3-04/B3-04.
229.3 Multigrade engine oils for cars. These engine oils meet the requirements of ACEA A3-04/B3-04, C3-04. The approvals are possible only for the low-friction engine oils that correspond to the SAE classes: 0W-X, 5W-X and 10W-X. In comparison to 229.1 these engine oils have a better quality in the following aspects: wear, cleanness, fuel economy and cold start characteristics. Due to the decreased proportion of chlorine and sulphide they are also environmental compatible.
229.31 Multigrade low-friction engine oils with the decreased proportion of phosphor, sulphide and ash (Low SPAsh-oils). They are prescribed for diesel car engines irrespectively of a particulate filter. These engine oils meet the requirements of ACEA A3-04/B3-04, C3-04. In comparison to 229.1 these engine oils are characterized through the better environmental compatibility due to the decreased proportion of chlorine, sulphide and ash. They have also a better quality in the following aspects: wear, cleanness, fuel economy and cold start characteristics
299.5 Multigrade low-friction engine oils for car engines with extended oil change intervals (20 000km) and decreased pollutant emission. In comparison to 229.1 and 229.3 these engine oils stand out due to the best quality in such aspects as wear and cleanness. Moreover they possess the potential for better fuel economy and more extended oil change intervals under condition that vehicles are equipped with the new oil filters. The further advantage is an improved environmental compatibility. These engine oils meet the requirements of ACEA A3-04/B3-04.
229.51 Multigrade low-friction engine oils with the decreased proportion of phosphor, sulphide and ash (Low SPAsh-oils or Low SAPS) and the highest performance level. These engine oils meet the requirements of ACEA A3-04/B3-04, C3-04. They have the highest anti-wear and cleanness values and provide the best anti-foam and particle formation as well as the protection against deposits. These oils are distinguished through the improved fuel economy and environmental compatibility.
Since April 1997, oils for gasoline engines can only be approved according to VW 502 00. However, previous specifications are still valid. 502 00 replaces the previous specifications VW500 00 and VW501 01 and is based on the requirements of the previous specification VW 500 00 and a T4-2.0l test for gasoline engines. The aprroval according to VW 502 00 represents a preliminary stage in respect to the further development of engine oils with capability of extended change oil intervals. At present, engine oils 15W-40 and 10W-40 cannot get the approval according to VW 502 00 . The VW 505 00 is still valid for diesel engines exept the engines with a pump-injector element. For them, engine oils according to VW 505 01 are currently required. Engine oils that meet the requirements of this specification are characterised through a good viscosity at low temperatures, high thermic stability, and low pumping force. For the models of the year 2000, engine oils according to VW 503 00 and VW 506 00 for gasoline and diesel engines respectively are required. These are special products that provide an extension of oil change intervals.
500 00 These are the low- friction engine oils for gasoline and diesel engines with direct injection. Only the engine oils that correspond to the following SAE classes: 0W-XX, 5W-XX and 10W-XX can be included in this specification. Since October 1991 the engine oils XX>40 (e.g. 5W-50, 10W-60) haven’t been taken into consideration any more.
501 01 Conventional multigrade engine oils without low-friction characteristics for gasoline and diesel engines with direct injection.
502 00 Low-friction engine oils for gasoline engines used under extreme operating conditions.
503 00 These engine oils are defined for car gasoline engines with extended maintenance intervals (WIV 30 000km, 2 years) It covers the requirements of 502 00 (HTHS 2,9 mPas)
504 00 These engine oils are predetermined for the vehicles with Longlife-Service, namely for gasoline and diesel engines irrespectively of a particulate filter.
503 01 These engine oils are defined for gasoline car engines with turbo chargers and extended maintenance intervals (WIV) e.g. Audi S3, TT (HTHS >3,5 mPas)
505 00 These are multigrade engine oils for diesel engines irrespectively of a turbo charger.
505 01 These are multigrade engine oils specially for diesel engines with pump-injector element.
506 00 These are engine oils for diesel engines with extended maintenance intervals (WIV 50 000km, 2 years, HTHS 2,9 mPas)
506 01 These are engine oils for diesel engines with pump-injector element and extended maintenance intervals (WIV)
507 00 These engine oils are predetermined for the vehicles with Longlife-Service, namely for gasoline and diesel engines irrespectively of a particulate filter.
Here again ACEA A2/B3 provides the basis for approval by Porsche. The products are additionally tested in the engine of Porsche 911.
A40 Porsche A40 includes all the cars that have been built since 1994. Additionally it is valid for Porsche gasoline engines of the following models: 911, Cayman, Boxter, Panamera, Cayenne, Cayenne V6 without Longlife-Service.
C30 This specification can be compared with VW 504 00/507 00. It applies specially to Cayenne 3,0l-TDI engine with a particulate filter as well as to Cayenne V6 gasoline engine without Longlife-Service.
The Fiat Group worked out its own oil specifications to describe the properties of the lubricants that are normally applied in gasoline and diesel engines. These specifications are based on the numerous tests held in the laboratory and on the engine. The laboratory examinations check the chemical characteristics of a lubricant. The most important of them are viscosity, foam formation, resistance to oxidation and low temperatures, tendency to produce corrosion. The purpose of the engine tests is to examine the physical characteristics of a lubricant such as the ability to reduce the friction and wear between the moving parts, to protect a piston from deposits etc. A further aspect defined during the engine tests is oil consumption of certain gasoline and diesel engines typical of Fiat automotive advanced technology.
Fiat 9.55535-D2 For diesel engine lubricants with standard characteristics.
Fiat 9.55535-G1 For gasoline engine lubricants granting fuel economy and extended drain.
Fiat 9.55535-G2 For gasoline engine lubricants with standard characteristics.
Fiat 9.55535-H2 For gasoline engine lubricants, granting high performances and high viscosity at high temperatures. OEM recommended product also meets API SM, ACEA A3-04/B3-04.
Fiat 9.55535-H3 For gasoline engine lubricants granting very high performances.
Fiat 9.55535-M2 For lubricants with extended drain.OEM recommended product also meets ACEA A3-04/B4-04, GM-LL-B-025.
Fiat 9.55535-N2 For lubricants with a very good characteristics for turbocharged engines, diesel and gasoline, with extended drain. Minimum requirement is ACEA A3-04/B4-04.
Fiat 9.55535-S1 For diesel and gasoline engine, with exhaust treatment system, lubricants, granting fuel economy and extended drain. OEM recommended product is also approved to ACEA C2.
Fiat 9.55535-S2 For diesel and gasoline engine, with exhaust treatment system, lubricants, with extended drain. OEM recommended product also meets: ACEA C3, MB 229.51 and API SM/CF.
The PSA group issued a set of oil specifications in 2009 in order to exercise greater control over the engine oils used in their vehicles. All specifications are based on ACEA specs but also require further conditions to be met.
PSA B71 2290 Is a low-SAPS oil intended for engines with diesel particulate filters and with Euro 5 emission standards. General specifications are: ACEA C2 or C3 with additional PSA tests.
PSA B71 2294 Main specification: ACEA A3/B4 with additional PSA tests.
PSA B71 2295 Is a standard for engine before MY 1998. General specification: ACEA A2/B2.
PSA B71 2296 General specifications: ACEA A3/B4 + additional PSA tests.
The French vehicle manufacturer Renault had adapted its regulations to ACEA-Specifications, before its new model Laguna III was introduced in October 2007. There was also no release procedure. With the introduction of Laguna III Renault published its own specifications for engine oils and the conditions of the release procedure. Since that time the demand on these engine oils has been rapidly increased. The usage of engine oils that are not approved by Renault can result in the loss of warranty. All the vehicles built by Renault after the introduction of Laguna III meet the requirements of ACEA-Specifications furthermore.
Renault RN0700 General requirements: ACEA A3/B4 or ACEA A5/B5. For gasoline non-turbocharged engines starting with 2008 Model. SAE 5W-40, API SM/CF]
Renault RN0710 General requirements: ACEA A3/B4 + additional Renault demands. For gasoline turbocharged engines including the sport cars of Renault and diesel engines without particulate filter starting with 2008. SAE 5W-40, API SM/CF]
Renault RN 0720 General requirements: ACEA C4 + additional Renault demands. RN 0720 is designed for use in the latest generation diesel engines equipped with DPF (downwardly compatible with models containing particulate filters)
Engine Oil Specifications
The term “HD engine oil” was created during the change from purely mineral oil (non-alloy oils), which had been used until then, to alloyed oils. The abbreviation “HD” (for Heavy Duty) emerged for the first time in a specification of engine oils issued by the US Army (MIL specifications) in 1941 and indicated engine oils that could satisfy military requirements with help of additives. Today this abbreviation is irrelevant. At the same time, API developed another classification for engine oils, parallel to the MIL specifications. The API classification system distinguishes between S-class (S = Service) and C-class (C = Commercial). The S-class covers oils that are employed at service stations (in the USA, only in vehicles with petrol engines), the C-class contains oils for diesel engines (commercial group). The letter behind S or C indicates the performance level of a particular engine oil. An alphabetically lower letter includes the preceding performance standards.
||Oils with additives for protection against ageing and wear.
||Oils of this class met the requirements of the US engine manufacturers in 1964-67.
||For the US vehicles manufactured between 1968 and 1971.
||Enhanced SD for the years of manufacture between 1972 and approx. 1980.
||Enhanced protection against oxidation, wear, deposits, and corrosion according to the requirements of the US engine manufacturers from 1980 on.
||Effective from March 1988 to conform to higher requirements on ageing and sludge depositing.
||Effective from 1993. The oils of this class must successfully pass different compulsory tests under strictly controlled conditions.
||Effective from 1996. Lower phosphorus content, lower tendency to evaporation, higher ageing stability in comparison to the SH-oils.
||Since 2001. Meets the requirements by manufacturers for two-stroke engines.
||Since 2005. The highest class existing today.
(The classes SE, SF, SG, SH have become obsolete.)
||Primarily for low duty diesel engines according to the MIL 2104A specification of the year 1954.
||For moderate duty engines according to MIL 2104A Supplement 1.
||For moderate duty engines according to MIL 2104B of the year 1961.
||Heavy duty oils according to MIL 2104C.
||Irrelevant for diesel engines in personal cars and commercial vehicles in Europe.
||As CD, but the tests are carried out in engines of next generation.
||Since 1994. For two-stroke diesel engines, also supersedes SD-II.
||Since 1990. For four-stroke diesel engines, supersedes CC, CD, CE.
||Since 1994. Supersedes CF-4.
||Since 1998. Supersedes SG-4.
||Since 2002. Supersedes CH-4.
The API classification system was designed for vehicles on the US market and driving conditions in this country. As for engine oil specifications that are required in Europe, this system can only be transferred with limitations.
As a result of this incompatibility, European manufacturers together with Coordinating European Council (CEC) have developed an array of tests in laboratory and on experimental rig and established the European classification system CCMC . Like the API classifications, engine oils are divided into classes by their characteristics. The letter G stands for gasoline (petrol engines), D for diesel (commercial engines), and PD for diesel engines in personal cars. Numbers 1-5 after the particular letter indicate the performance level of an oil, number 5 standing for the highest performance.
The CCMC classification system had not been upgraded since the end of 1991 (no integration of engines of next generation), which resulted in imprecise indication of engine oil performance from 1992 on. After 4 years of development, since the 1st of January 1996 the European classification system for engine oils has been called ACEA . Today, ACEA specifies the minimum requirements on the quality of engine oils. Here, too, a combination of letters and numbers gives information about the field of application of a particular oil. A1, A2, A3, A4, A5 are performance classes of oils for petrol engines (A4 is reserved for direct injection engines), B1, B2, B3, B4, B5 – for diesel engines, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5, E6, E7 – for truck diesel engines (commercial vehicles).
As far as petrol engines are concerned, the requirements according to ACEA A1 and ACEA A3 can be considered quite equal. However, ACEA A1 contains an additional requirement for the reduction of fuel consumption of >2.5% in comparison to the reference oil (15W-40) during the M111 test of fuel consumption. Contrary to the ECE-test, the ACEA-test is not carried out on a roller rig. Only products with very low viscosity can meet these demands on fuel reduction. The applied criterion is the index HTHS. The threshold HTHS has been >3.5 mPas so far. A reduce of HTHS down to 2.9 mPas is only possible in the class ACEA A1 as well as in ACEA B1 for diesel engines.
At present, only Renault and Ford accept the products that conform to ACEA A1/B1 for use in their petrol engines. Other manufacturers do not allow their use.
Classifications for diesel engines are analogue to those for petrol engines. As mentioned before, there are three classifications B1, B2, and B3. However, the requirements according to ACEA B1 and ACEA B3 profiles are incommensurable.
Engine Oil Classifications for Two-Stroke Engines
Basically, a modern oil for two-stroke engines has to perform the same tasks and functions as an oil for four-stroke engine, namely to lubricate, to cool down, to protect, to seal, and to clean. Of course, an oil for two-stroke engine also has to protect against wear and reduce friction. Different from four-stroke engines is, however, that two-stroke engines are either lubricated by a fuel-oil mixture or – as it is becoming usual in modern two-stroke engines – supplied through an automatic lubricating system (separated lubrication). Independent of a particular fuel-oil mixture, lubrication in two-stroke engines occurs at a loss, i.e. the used oil is burned.
There are also standardised motor tests for two-stroke engines in order to characterize the performance level of oils.
API Classes for Two-Stroke Engines
The motor tests required for characterization of oil performance cannot be carried out any more, for the motors involved into the API classification ceased to be manufactured. Thus the API classes are not relevant for today’s two-stroke engines.
||for scooters and motorbikes
||for high-performance engines
Engine Oil Classifications for Two-Stroke Outboard Motors
High specific power output of water-cooling outboard motors in connection with their relatively low operating and exhaust temperatures require special oils for two-stroke engines. The NMMA specifies particular testing procedures for water-cooling outboard motors made in the USA.
BIA TC-W, API TC-W, and since January 1996 also NMMA TC-WII are out of date and irrelevant for today’s engines. For them, oils according to NMMA #TC-W3# are suitable.
API Classification for Vehicle Transmission Oils
||Non-alloy transmission oils for gear transmission and worm gear as well as for bevelled and straight axle drives under light operating conditions. Corrosion and oxidation inhibitors can also be added.
||Transmission oils for axle transmission with worm gear which cannot operate faultlessly with oils of the GL1 category (due to high operational demands).
||Mildly alloyed (EP) transmission oils for manual transmission and specific gear as well as for axle drive under light and moderate operating conditions.
||Transmission oils for hypoid-geared axle drive under normal operating conditions as well as for heavily strained manual transmission and specific gear. They approximately correspond to the MIL-L 2105 standard.
||Transmission oils for heavily strained hypoid-geared axle drive, partly also for manual transmission and specific gear. They approximately correspond to the MIL-L 2105 B standard; the GL5 oils with multigrade characteristics approximate the MIL-L 2105 C/D standard.
||Transmission oils for extremely strained hypoid-geared axle drive (offset more than 25% of the crown wheel diameter); they are now retracted. API GL6 is equivalent to the M 2C-105 A standard by Ford.
Hypoid Gear Oils
Extreme pressure lubricants with EP additives that enhance lubricating qualities and prevent damaging on contacting metal surfaces. Mainly used for axle drive in vehicles that have spiral bevel gears and offset gears (hypoid gears).
ATFs are especial lubricants that meet extraordinary high demands of automatic clutch and transmission systems. These require a very good viscosity at low temperatures, shearing strain stability, high resistance to oxidation, outstanding anti-frothing and air-releasing properties, defined friction characteristics, EP characteristics, etc.
All big Japanese manufacturers of two-stroke engines are represented in this organization and specify today’s strictest demands on oils for two-stroke engines. The crucial evaluation criteria are engine cleanliness, lubricating quality, potential damage to the exhaust system, and reduce of exhaust fumes.
Today, a European classification system is being elaborated. The ISO classes EGB and EGC are comparable to the respective JASO classes, whereas ISO-L-EGD will represent a significantly higher engine capacity.